What is a business environment and what factors affect it?

What constitutes a business environment extends beyond a company's four walls. It encapsulates the dynamic interplay of internal and external factors influencing its operations. 

The complex ecosystem of a business environment presents opportunities for growth and potential challenges, making understanding these factors paramount for business success. 

In this article, we define a business environment and explain its importance and the factors that affect it, so you can create effective business strategies in response to the ever-changing dynamics of your operational landscape.

What is a business environment?

A business environment refers to the internal and external factors affecting a business's operations. These factors are dynamic and constantly evolving. As a result, a business environment often results from a business sinking or swimming.

The factors that influence a business environment are split into the following primary categories:

  • General factors: Economic and social issues impacting businesses universally, including law, technology, and social-political norms.

  • Specific factors: Unique elements directly related to a particular business, such as competitors, target markets, suppliers, and customers.

  • Uncertainty factors: Future-shaping factors that are hard to predict and often external, requiring businesses to adapt, e.g. new technology or changes in foreign trade restrictions.

  • The interrelation of factors: Factors can influence each other, creating a ripple effect - for instance, a general factor like a pandemic can affect business environments, leading to specific and uncertain factors.

  • Changing factors: Constant evolution of the business landscape will impact sectors differently. Rapid changes, especially in dynamic sectors like technology, require close attention to ensure the business adapts in time

  • A chain reaction of factors: Causal relationships between factors can be complex. A small change in one factor may lead to a chain reaction, affecting various areas of the business and resulting in significant changes.

  • Distribution of factors: Factors are not evenly distributed. Businesses must adapt to external factors, as they may benefit some while being detrimental to others, creating variations in their impact.

Why is a business environment important?

Business leaders and managers need to understand the business environment of their organisation so that they can respond to the conditions appropriately. Here are four key reasons why understanding a business environment is essential:

  • Supports and improves performance: Understanding the business environment enables development of proactive strategies, allowing companies to adapt and optimise performance

  • Improves strategic planning and organisation: Maintaining awareness of the business environment facilitates strategic planning, enhancing organisational preparedness for future changes and expansion

  • Identifies business opportunities: Continuous analysis of the dynamic business environment uncovers growth opportunities, enabling the creation of new products or services to capitalise on market gaps

  • Highlights business threats: Recognising and analysing potential threats, such as new competitors or profit losses, allows businesses to address challenges and remain competitive in the market proactively

External business environment factors

Professionals tend to break down business environment factors into internal and external. Here is a list of the top external factors that shape a business environment from the outside. It's often referred to as PESTLE:

Political factors

Businesses are subject to the influence of political decisions and changes, such as those affecting international relations and regulatory frameworks. Political choices can affect businesses both positively and negatively. For example, the political climate in one country may help a business to flourish, while in another it may impose restrictions on business activities.

Companies affected by political decisions must amend their processes to comply with new legislation, or review them to ensure minimal risk to the business's future.

Economic factors

Economic factors can also have a significant impact on a business. The state of the economy plays a vital role in every way, from staff well-being to the company's ability to operate. For example, economic downturns often bring rising unemployment, which means businesses may have to work harder to sustain revenue streams.

Economic features which affect a business environment include the rate of inflation, supply and demand, and economic policies, such as import-export, tax structure, and public expenditure.

Social factors

Every society has its unique culture and social norms. A company must be cognisant of these factors to understand their business environment. Social factors are important because they affect how a business presents its brand and engages with its regional or global customer base. 

Examples of how social factors affect a business environment include catering to specific preferences and expectations of underrepresented groups and businesses entering markets that are becoming more Westernised.

Social factors that affect a business environment can be grouped into culture and traditions, social trends, and values.

Technological factors

Technological developments affect every sector. You only need to look at the advent of ChatGPT and AI to see the impact of tech advancements. Businesses employing these technologies for customer service, data analysis, or content creation gain a competitive edge, while those resistant to adaptation may face hurdles. 

Similar to the impact of GPS integration on personal car devices, companies need to strategise to address challenges posed by technological advancements. The ability to embrace and integrate such technological developments is crucial in determining a company's position in the evolving business environment.

Legal factors

Businesses globally must conduct themselves under the law. Legal factors shape businesses differently - it depends on their legal jurisdiction. 

One sub-section of legal factors is compliance and regulations, such as product safety standards and employment law. Another is intellectual property law, such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Then, there are contractual obligations, such as relationships with suppliers and customers. Taxation, environmental, data protection, privacy, and antitrust and competition laws also impact business environments.

Environmental factors

The natural environment significantly influences business environments. For example, severe weather events like floods can reshape a business landscape and require a change in operations. 

In today's context of heightened environmental concerns, businesses are increasingly adapting to be more environmentally friendly. For instance, the government's net-zero carbon targets by 2050 mandate businesses to participate actively in sustainable practices, fostering a shift toward eco-friendly operations and influencing the overall business environment.

Internal business environment factors

In addition to external factors, internal factors affect a business environment. The most common factors include:

Organisation structure

The business's organisational structure influences all aspects of a business environment because it dictates how decisions are made. A business with a flat organisational structure tends to have a more laissez-faire approach to work, whereas a company with a functional organisational structure is more hierarchically rigid.

Value framework

A company's values profoundly impact its environment by shaping its culture, guiding decision-making, and influencing interactions with employees and stakeholders. Values are the foundation of a company's identity and set the standard for behaviour, corporate culture, products, and services. When aligned with the broader business environment, values help businesses to thrive.

Overarching vision and goals

A long-term, overarching vision and achievable goals shape a business environment because they inform every critical decision in the company. Guiding principles provide a clear direction, influencing strategic decisions, resource allocation, and organisational priorities. A well-defined vision fosters alignment among employees, creating a shared sense of purpose and motivation.


Technology and technological advancements shape business environments internally, too. Harnessing new tech in the right way can unlock a whole host of benefits. For example, technology facilitates data-driven decision-making, enabling companies to respond swiftly to market changes.

Technology empowers businesses to stay competitive by embracing automation, artificial intelligence, and digital solutions, influencing how tasks are executed, products are developed, and services are delivered. It becomes a driving force that modernises internal operations and positions the business for sustained growth and resilience in a dynamic landscape.

Resource management

Effective resource management directly influences operational efficiency, productivity, and overall competitiveness. Resources could include human capital, financial assets, or physical assets. If business leaders and managers efficiently allocate resources, the business's capabilities can be fully realised, directly impacting the broader business environment.

Operational processes

Operational processes significantly shape a business environment. Well-optimised internal workflows contribute to cost-effectiveness, timely product or service delivery, and enhanced customer satisfaction. In contrast, inefficient or outdated operational processes can lead to delays, errors, and increased costs, negatively impacting the overall business environment. 

The continuous improvement and innovation of operational processes are essential for businesses to stay competitive.

Knowledge of business environments is precious in the workplace, especially if you're in a leadership position. Check that you're effectively emphasising your understanding of business environments and your experience in reacting to changing factors on your CV by submitting your CV for a free review.

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